Central Question: Just how did the Mongols complete the conquest of such a huge territory inside such a short period of time?
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The key History of the Mongols, 13th Century, compiled from Mogol Oral Customs
After this in the Year of the Sheep Chingis Khan set out to fight the people of Cathay (the Chin Empire in north China). 1st he took the city of Fu-chou then simply marching through the Wild Fox Pass he took Hsuan-te-fu. From here he sent out an army under Jebe's command to take the fortress at Chu-yung Kuan. When Jebe arrived he noticed the Chu-yung Kuan was well defended, so this individual said:
" I'll trick them and make them appear in the open. I'll pretend to retreat then when they come away I'll strike them. ”
So Jebe retreated plus the Cathayan armed service cried: " Let's go after them! ”
They added out of their fortifications before the valleys and mountainsides had been full of their very own soldiers. Jebe retreated to Sondi-i-wu Shape and there he turned his military around to attack because the foe rushed toward him in waves. The Cathayan military services was defeated and close behind Jebe's forces Chingis Khan commanding the great Midsection Army bitten as well, pushing the Cathayan army to retreat, eradicating the finest and the most courageous military of Cathay, the Jurchin and Khara Khitan fighters, slaughtering them along the part of Chu-yung Kuan to ensure that their systems lay collected like rotten logs.
The Chronicles of Novgorod, 1016-1417, written by private monks in Novgorod around Russia.
[In 1238] foreigners called Tartars came in hundreds, like locusts, into the terrain of the Ryazan, and on initially coming they halted in the river Nukhla, and got it, and halted in camp there. And thence they dispatched their emissaries to the Knyazes of Ryasan, a sorceress and two men with her, demanding from them one-tenth of everything: of men and Knyazes and horses – of everything a single tenth…. And the Knyazes believed to them: " Only when none of us remain then all will be yours. ”…. As well as the Knyazes of Ryazan brought to Yuri of Volodimir requesting help or perhaps him to come. Yet Yuri none went him self nor listed to the demand of the Knayazes of Ryasan, but he wished to produce war individually. But it was too late to oppose the wrath of God…. Then the questionnable foreigners encircled Ryazan and fenced this in with a stockade. Plus the Tartars took the town about December twenty-one, and they got advanced against it for the 16th of the same month. They likewise slain the Knyaz and the Knyaginya, and males, women, and children, monks, nuns and priests, several by fireplace, some by sword, and violated nuns, priests' spouses, good women and girls in the presence of their mothers and sisters…. And who, brethren, would not lament over this kind of, among those of us alive when they suffered this kind of bitter and violent loss of life? And we, indeed, having seen this, were terrified and wept with sighing day and night more than our sins…
Travels, Ambito Polo, Written in 1298 based on his travels from 1274 to 1290.
Their arms are bows, iron maces, and some occasions, spears; nevertheless the first may be the weapon at which they are the most expert, becoming accustomed, from kids, to employ it in their athletics. They wear defensive armour made from zoysia grass and skins of different beasts, dried by the fireplace, and thus made extremely hard and strong. They may be brave in battle, nearly to paralyzing desparation, setting very little value after their lives, and subjecting themselves with no hesitation to all manner of threat. Their personality is terrible.
They are able to support every sort of privation, and once there is a...